India is a country that is located in South Asia, ranking seventh in the world in terms of area. The territory of India is divided into 29 states.
Himachal Pradesh and analyze what is interesting to see in this northern region of the country.
Historical reference Himachal Pradesh.
The history of the state begins as early as 1750 BC. In the territory of the future state lived a number of tribes such as Kinnara, kirat, dhagri, koyli, dagi, khali, dasa and khasa. They were held by small tribal republics, called “janapada”. People of ancient tribes engaged in farming, animal husbandry (already in those days they learned to tame bulls, camels, etc.), jewelry business and housing construction. Then the Buddhist religion began to emerge and spread.
In the 4th century, the territory was conquered by the Gupta dynasty. During their rule, a system of rules was developed, thanks to which the development of national literature, architecture, philosophy and fine arts began. It entered the history of India as a “golden age”.
In 606 Harshavadhan conquered the territory, united all the tribes and multiplied his principality. But his reign was short-lived, and the region again split into many independent tribal principalities with their leaders. They were subjected to multiple attacks by Muslims and the ruin of the economy. Many of them paid tribute. In India, rebellions began. The Gurkhas (British colonial troops) who served in the Indian and British armies participated in the suppression of the uprisings. Gradually, they captured Sirmur (Himachal district), Shimla (the administrative district of Himachal state) and besieged Kangra. It was not possible to win Kangra, and the Gurkha detachment moved south. The state remained under the rule of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1809.
Ranjit Singh died in 1839. After his death, strife broke out in the principality. The throne was won: Sikh Indhanvali and Hindu Dogra, which in 1841 brought to power the illegitimate son of Singh – Sher Singh. The country maintained order. But Shera Singh could not pay off with the Hals (employees responsible for finance) while wasting money on his yard. The next rebellion of soldiers began in the country. They killed everyone who spoke Persian since it was the language of Khalsa. In 1843 he was killed by his cousin Ajit Singh Sindhangvali.
In 1845 the “First Anglo-Sikh War” began and ended with the conquest of the Sikhs in 1846.
The Sipai uprising of 1857 served as the basis for the revision of British policy in India. The end of the British East India Company came and replaced it on the reign of the crown of England.
In 1876, power passed over to Queen Victoria, proclaiming her Empress of India.
On April 1, 1954, the new state of Bilaspur was incorporated into Himachal. November 1, 1956, Himachal became the Allied Territory. For 10 years, several dozens of more lands joined.
January 25, 1971, the state of Himachal Pradesh was established and was proclaimed by 18 states of India.
(Himachal Pradesh Tour Package, Shimla Tour Package, Manali Tour Package, exclusively available at Sushant Travels)
The geographical position of Himachal Pradesh.
Himachal Pradesh has been a state since 1971 with a population of over 6,000,000 people. The capital of Shimla, formerly the capital of British India is Simla. The state is divided into 12 districts, each of which is divided into sub-districts and further into blocks.
The area of the state is 55,7 thousand km2. Himachal Pradesh has 5 borders: east – PRC, southeast – Uttarakhand, south – Uttar Pradesh and Haryana, southwest – Punjab, north – Jammu and Kashmir. The state is mountainous with a height of 350 to 6,000 meters above sea level. From the north and east, the state surrounds the mountain ranges of the Himalayas, from the south – the mountain range Shivalik. The main river is the Sutledge, a tributary of the Indus River. The rivers Chenab, Rabbi, Bias, Satlage, Jamba flow through the entire mountain range. Promoting the growth of the Himalayan forests.
The climate of Himachal Pradesh.
Since the state of the mountain, the weather in it is somewhat cooler than in other states of India. The climate of Himachal ranges from subtropical hot to cold and is divided into three seasons: hot, rainy and cold. The hottest time is the interval from mid-April to the end of June. At this time in the lowland air temperature + 28- + 32 ° C, sometimes reaching + 40 ° C, in the alpine zone a softer summer with a temperature of +18 – + 23 ° C. The rainy season starts from the end of June (early July) and lasts until the end of October. For this season, more than 80% of annual precipitation falls and the temperature does not exceed + 25 °, respectively, in the mountains, it is 5 degrees lower. The residents of winter meet in the end of November and say goodbye to it by the end of March. The temperature is + 15 ° C in the lowland, in the mountainous regions the air temperature reaches 0 °. In the high Trans-Himalayan belt, at an altitude of more than 2000 meters, snow falls and the air temperature drops below -8 °.
(Honeymoon Tour Package, Shimla Honeymoon Tour Packages, Manali Holiday Packages, Available at Sushant Travels)
Attractions Himachal Pradesh.
Passing through the sights of the state, we start from the city of Shimla – the capital of Himachal Pradesh.
The capital of Shimla is at an altitude of 2,100 meters above sea level, surrounded by the famous Himalayan forests with unusually clean and clear air. Himalayan firs, rhododendrons, oaks, pines, wildflowers, and grass grow here. In the forest there live various animals (deer, jackals), including predatory (sometimes you can meet a leopard). In addition to animals, the forest is filled with a large number of birds, from which it is possible to identify pheasants and Himalayan eagles. In 1864 it was the summer residence of British India.
Also worth noting is the castle of the British governor, in whose territory the botanical garden is spread (lawn of fairies, hall of wildflower, the house of apple tree).
Lake Revalsar, is the main pilgrimage site for Buddhists and Hindus, on the shore of which several monasteries have been built. In Shimla, there is one Christian church – the Church of Christ. At the top of the mountain is a cave with a statue of Padmasambhava’s teacher, where Padmasambhava spent his days in meditation. The road to it is littered with prayer flags, and a mantra (sacred hymn) is stamped on the rock.
In the capital for all comers since 1974, the State Museum has been opened, displaying all the cultural wealth of the state. It provides sculptures and bronze items, a collection of paintings by Pahari, clothing, textiles and jewelry masterpieces.
Vashisht village is located at an altitude of 1982 meters and is known for sulfuric hot springs with the temple of Vashishty of black stone. Not far from this place is the Ramachandra temple (Rama). Behind the village, with a steep cliff, numerous waterfalls rage, striking with their beauty and grandeur, falling from the 35-meter height.
Mcleod Ganj is a few km away. from Dharamshala (the state administrative center) and is considered a city of Tibetan refugees. Here is the residence of the Delhi Lama and many more monasteries and temples in which there are statues of Buddha 3 meters high, the god of compassion – Avalokiteshvara, the Indian scientist – Padmasambava. In the city, there is the Institute of Tibetan Medicine and Astrology, the School of Buddhist Painting and Dialectics, the Museum of Culture of Tibet. These places attract tourists and pilgrims from all over the world.
Chamba is a town named after the daughter of Raja Sahil Varman – Champavati. You can get to the city by crossing the bridge over the river Rabbi. In the center of the city, there is a large area for public and cultural events – Chogan, which is surrounded by buildings, including the ancient palace of Akkhand. The local churches are considered the most beautiful temples of the state Himachal Pradesh. The city museum of Bhuri Singh presents the history of Chamba, in which miniatures on wall paintings, stone carvings, metal masks, silver and copper items, as well as hand-embroidered handkerchiefs are exhibited. They are used for gifts and temple offerings.
In Himachal Pradesh, one of the interesting excursions is a trip in the “toy train”, which will take you from Kalki to Shilma. During the journey, you can enjoy all the splendor of the picturesque places, the beauty of nature. The train travels about 35 minutes at a low speed along the rocky cliffs, forests.
In 19 km. from Shimla there is a small Kufri mountain station. Here you will find the Himalayan Nature Park and Indira Tourist Park. In the park, you can ride the whole family on yaks and ponies. Here is the zoo, which is considered the best in India. In it are collected such animals as Tibetan wolf, Himalayan bear, red panda, snow leopard, tiger, etc. And also several species of birds.
Dharamsala is the administrative center of Kangra in the state of Himachal Pradesh. Here you can visit the residence of the Dalai Lama and the residence of the Karmapa, a library with a large collection of Tibetan books, other temples located nearby along the shore of the sacred lake Revalsar. In the residence of the Dalai Lama is an English church in 1852 – the church of St. John.
Not far from Dharamsala or Mcleod Ganj is Bagsu – a very popular village among tourists. In the village stands a small temple of the 16th century – the Shiva temple. Near the temple, there is a sulfur source, and below is a bathhouse, where for a fee you can take a sulfur bath. On the outskirts of the village – a waterfall – a great place to capture a trip to memory.
For extreme tourism, a cycling trip is proposed for 4 difficulties in the Indian Himalayas. During the hike, you will encounter difficulties, danger, but at the same time, learn a lot from the history of India, get acquainted with the life of the mountain people and enjoy the beauty and nature of the mountain route.
Whichever excursion you choose, it is necessary to go to it with a guide who has a license.
Places for entertainment and shopping in Himachal Pradesh.
Country India is a true paradise for the buyer. Here you can buy inexpensive and high-quality fabrics: cotton, wool, cashmere, silk, chiffon, brocade. The cheapest goods are carpets. A lot of souvenirs made of sandalwood, objects made of copper, brass, bronze. Gourmets will enjoy a large selection of various spices. Very carefully approach the acquisition of gold and silver jewelry and precious stones.
Himachal Pradesh is known for its many holidays that last all year:
– Shivratri is a festival in honor of Shiva, which takes place in Mandi from February to March;
– Summer Festival – held in Dharamsala and Shimla from May to June;
– Munjar – the festival takes place from July to August in Chamba;
– Manimahesh Yatra – a pilgrimage to the sacred lake of Hindus for the purification from sins. It lasts from August to September in the city of Bharmur;
– Dussehra – a holiday in Kulu, runs from September to October;
– Lavi Fair takes place in November in the city of Rampour. It exchanges goods of various regions;
– Renuka Fair – the holiday of the end of the harvest. Held in the city of Nakhan.
From November to February, the most successful time for tourism with the purpose of sports entertainment. In the city of Shilma there is a wide choice of sporting events: downhill on the mountain rivers, skiing, diving, golf.
And so, choosing the route of travel in India, take a closer look at this state. It is certainly colder than the rest of the districts, but this has its own charm and a number of positive moments.